The Modified DISC Manual


INTRODUCTION

In devising the standards for the administration and scoring of the DISC, the primary goal was to try to ensure consistency of administration and scoring. To do this, the instructions have been presented as explicitly as possible. Before an examiner administers and interprets the DISC, the examiner should become familiar with the DISC Test Manual which outlines the organization and format of the scale, age placement of items, standardization and norming procedures, and other relevant statistical information necessary for a thorough understanding of the DISC as a whole. It is also strongly advised that the examiner view the DISC training tape before beginning an assessment session. ! is hoped that the instruction manual along with the training tape will provide the necessary background for a standard administration procedure. The principles involved in the administration and scoring of each test item have been explained and examples of acceptable responses are provided where appropriate. These examples are responses that were obtained and recorded through out the standardization study. Comparison of obtained responses with illustrations provided should facilitate scoring.

The following information is provided for each item: age level of the item: item number: description of the item; number of the container required and materials to be used within the container; whether or not the item can be passed based on report; criterion for scoring the item, instructions for administrating the item and additional comments where necessary.

When the term "mother" or "guardian" is used, the authors are referring to any parent surrogate (father, babysitter, etc.) who is present during the assessment session. The parent, or parent surrogate, is often present during the assessment session, especially with children below the age of attending day care or nursery school. He/she should be asked to refrain from offering any help to the child or making any comments unless assistance is requested by the examiner. Since the DISC is a test of maximal performance, parental presence encouraged.

Throughout the instruction manual, the child is addressed as "he" or "ske" alternately. This has been done to eliminate the need to indicate he/she repeatedly and to try to smooth the flow of information to the reader.

The reader's attention should be directed to page 21 of the DISC test manual in order to review relevant information regarding Preparation for Administration such as assessment environment, assessment materials, assessment time, orders of presentation of scales and items within scales, establishing the basal and ceiling, recording responses, interpretation of results, rescreening, referrals and the use of age equivalents.

In most cases, the best location for infants is in a lounge chair or on their mother's lap. Toddlers may be seated in a high chair or at a table on their mother's lap. Preschoolers should be seated at a table with the examiner seated beside them Experience has shown that the examiner is best seated beside rather than across from the child so that items requiring diagrams or pictures to be drawn can be illustrated easily by the examiner. "Directional" items can also be more clearly explained when the examiner is seated beside he child. The examiner should try to refrain from using the word "right" if the child successfully completes an item. The examiner should say "Well done" or "You're trying very hard" to the child after each response, whether the response is correct or not.

In general, a response or skill observed at any time during The assessment session may be credited as a pass. Specific items to which this applies are discussed under the COMMENT section of the instructions.

The DISC record form lists three categories for recording results: P(pass), F<faii), R(refusal, no opportunity). "Check (P>" in the instruction manual means to place a check mark under the P(pass) column on the record form. Items that can be passed based on the mother's report are indicated, if an item is passed or failed on report, "Rpt", standing for "Report", should be placed in the appropriate column. All check marks and "Rpts" in the pass column will be credited towards the raw score for that scale. If the child has never completed a required skill (i.e. riding a bicycle> because of the lack of opportunity, "No 0pp", standing for "No Opportunity" should be placed under the "R" column and considered when interpreting the results. Physical handicaps interfering which the completion of any item should be listed as "No 0pp" under the "R" column. If the child refuses to complete an item, the examiner should o back and repeat the item later during the assessment session. A total of three refusals for an item should be recorded as a check mark under the "R" column.

The number of trials allowed and criterion for success are listed for each item. A criterion of 2/3 trials means that the item may be tried three times and the child must complete the item successfully on two of the trials. If the child completes the item on the first two trials, the third trial need not be 'given. The same procedure applies to items where several different questions are asked for one trial. If, for example, the child must answer 2/3 questions correctly to pass an item, the item is credited as soon as two correct responses are given. The third question need not be asked.

Allowances for spontaneity of responses are acceptable. For example, V-A.&M. Item No. 20 -- the examiner shows the child a picture of a doll, then turns the page and says "now where is it?" If the child points to the baby but then quickly corrects herself and points to the doll, the response should be considered acceptable. Allow the child ample time to confirm her response. However, refrain from giving verbal or auditory cues if the child's first response is incorrect. These cues could encourage the child to quickly change her mind.

A few of the materials needed to complete the assessment are not contained in the DISC kit. Examples of such equipment are the stairs required for several Gross Motor items and utensils and food required for feeding items on the Self Help scale. Materials available at the assessment location must be used for these items. The mother should be consulted regarding the type of food to be used for the Self Help.

In most cases, the examiner may repeat the demonstration or directions for each item. However, this is not the case for the two Attention and Memory scales. Since memory is being assessed, these items can be presented only once. For example, for Auditory Attention and Memory Item No. 20 - Repeats three digits - the examiner should ask the child to say "2, 4, 6". If the child does not respond or asks for the sequence to be repeated, the examiner should not repeat the sequence but proceed to the next sequence for the item asking the child to say "1, 3, 5". The first sequence should be considered a failure.

Questions should he phrased in a manner in which refusals can be avoided. "Let's do this", or "Let's try this" or "Now it's your turn to do it" is more likely to avoid a negative response than "Do you want to do it now?". The demonstration of an item can be repeated for each trial except when Attention and Memory items are being administered.

For example, F.M. Item No. 27: Cuts out circle -- the child is allowed two trials and must pass one trial. If the child is successful on the first attempt, the examiner should go on to the next item. If the child is unsuccessful on the first attempt, the examiner should demonstrate the item again and allow the child a second trial.

This is not the case for the two Attention and Memory scales. Since memory is being assessed as well as attention, each trial can only be demonstrated once. If the child fails the first trial, the examiner should not repeat the demonstration for this trial but should go on to the next trial. However, the manual does stipulate that two consecutive demonstrations should be made for each trial before the child attempts the response. For example V.-A.&M. Item No. 20: Repeats three digits -- the examiner should say "2, 4, 6 ... again 2, 4, 6 -- Now you say it." If the child misses a number, the examiner should not repeat the "2, 4, 6" trial but go on o The next trial "6, 3, 5."

For several attention and memory items - i.e. V.-A.&M. Item Nos. 20, 26 and V.-A.&M. No. 27, the first few trials are used as training trials to help clarify, to the child, the response that is required. These training trials are not part of the criterion for these items. The trials following the training trials provide the content for the criterion.

The two Attention and Memory scales are perhaps the most difficult to administer and for which to elicit appropriate responses. While administering the Auditory Attention and Memory Scale, it is important to refrain from providing visual cues. Likewise, it is important to not provide auditory cues while administering the Visual Attention and Memory Scale. For example, V.-A.&M. Item No. 19: Identifies shapes hidden behind screen -- when the examiner shows the child the triangle, he might say "that's a triangle". This gives him the added memory cue of not only seeing the triangle, but remembrance his voice saying "triangle". If the child names the picture or object for V.-A.&M. items, the examiner should simply say "this is a looking game, not a talking game., try to keep your mouth tightly closed so you don't talk." While administering these two scales try to remind yourself constantly of the skill you're looking for -- visual memory or auditory memory. In this way it will be easier to constantly eliminate auditory cues from V.-A.&M. items and visual cues from V.-A.&M. items.

Several items on the Language, Self Help and Social Scales can be passed based on the parent's/guardian's report. If possible, the examiner should present the item and try to observe the required response or task. if this is not possible, the examiner should ask the parent or teacher, if the child ? a preschool) if the child can complete the required task. Leading should be avoided. The questions should not be phrased in such a way ha mother feels she should answer "Yes" to every question. For example, an item such as Social Item No. 25 -- Takes turns with other children should be asked in the following manner. "How does play with other children? you need to constantly supervise her? Can she take turns with other children?" In this way, the parent cannot distinguish as easily the specific information required.

Before beginning the assessment session, the examiner should explain to the other that the child is not expected to successfully complete every item that is presented. The examiner should add that items will be administered until the child fails to complete several in a row, and that often these items are well above the age level corresponding to that of the child. This should help to alleviate any discomfort felt by the parent if the child fails any items.

If nursery school/day care staff want to use teacher report as a substitute to parent or guardian's report, make sure this is clearly marked on the record form (i.e. check (P) indicating RPT - teacher). It is usually advisable to ask the parent/guardian for the same information in order to see how the child's performance at school compares to her performance in the home.


Fine Motor

START POINTS BY MONTHS ITEM # ITEM DESCRIPTION
2 WEEKS - 6 MONTHS 1 HOLDS RATTLE FOR THREE SECONDS. REPORT: NOT ACCEPTED

CONTAINER: #1 (rattle) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Sit the child on the mother's lap or in a lounge chair. Shake the rattle to get the child's attention. Place the rattle in the child's hand. Check (Y) if the child holds on to the rattle for three seconds.

2 Puts hand to mouth. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: The child may be in any position other than stomach: on her back on the floor, sitting in a lounge chair, on her mother's lap, etc. Check (Y) if the child raises her hand to her mouth. Also credit if child puts any item held in her hand to her mouth.

COMMENT: This item is not directly administered. It may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

3 Hands held open most of the time. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "INSTRUCTIONS:" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: During the screening session, observe the child at rest -- not while crying, eating or fussing. Check (Y) if child's hands are open or loose-fisted most of the time.

4 Puts rattle to mouth. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (rattle) CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the rattle in the child's hand. Check (Y) if the child puts the rattle to his mouth.

COMMENT: Allow plenty of time for observing. Make sure the child is awake and not crying. This item may be observed at any time while the child is holding the rattle.

7 - 12 months 5 Grabs dangling ring. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (ring) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Hold the string with the ring attached in front of the child and within reach. Move it slightly to ensure that the child focuses on the ring.

If no interest is shown, repeat this item later during the screening session. Check (Y) if the child grabs the ring and holds on to it for at least three seconds.

6 Picks up cube. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #5 (one cube) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Sit the child on your lap facing away from you at a table or in a high chair and place a cube on the table within easy reach. Say "Pick up the cube/block........Get it!" Demonstrate.

Check (Y) if the child picks up the cube with one or both hands.

NOTE: ·Hitting two cubes together is a credit for Item #8 ·Building a two-cube tower is a credit for Item #11 ·Building a five-cube tower is a credit for Item #13

13 - 18 7 Palmar grasp of raisin. REPORT: Not accepted

(Box of raisins)

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Place a raisin in front of the child on the table or on the tray of the high chair. Say "You get the raisin. Pick it up". Demonstrate.

Check (Y) if the child uses his fingers and the heel of his palm to pick up the raisin.

*** Do not allow the child to eat the raisin in case of choking.

8 Hits two cubes together at midline. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #5 (2 cubes) CRITERION: 1/3 trials; see "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Put a cube in each of the child's hands. Say "Hit them together". Demonstrate. With two other cubes, try saying "pat-a-cake" to elicit the desired response. Check (Y) if the child hits the two cubes together in front of her body at the midline position.

COMMENT: Demonstrate this item for each of three trials. If the response required is not elicited, it may still be credited as a pass if observed during the remainder of the screening session.

NOTE: ·Building a two-cube tower is a credit for Item #11 ·Building a five-cube tower is a credit for Item #13

9 Pushes car along surface. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #4 (car) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the car on the table in front of the child. Demonstrate. Push the car along the top of the table in both a parallel and perpendicular direction.

Check (Y) if the child grasps and pushes the car with its wheels on the table for a distance of approximately eight inches (20 centimetres) either straight ahead or back and forth, in either a perpendicular or parallel direction.

19 - 24 months 10 Puts peg in pegboard three times. REPORT: Not accepted

Container: #11 (pegs), (pegboard) Criterion: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Establish the child's preferred hand; pegs should be placed at the side of the pegboard corresponding to the child's preferred hand. Demonstrate. Place the pegboard in front of the child. Insert five pegs in the pegboard, counting as you go to enhance interest. Remove the pegs and pile them near the side of the pegboard. Say "Now you put them in the holes".

Check (Y) if the child places three different pegs in pegboard or places the same peg in the pegboard three different times.

NOTE: · Putting 10 pegs in the pegboard is a credit for V.-A.&M. Item #13

11 Builds a two-cube tower. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #5 (6 cubes) CRITERION: 1/3 trials.

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Place six cubes on the table in front of the child and build a tower. Put the cubes back on the table and say "Now you do it" . It may be necessary to hand the cubes to the child one at a time and point to where each one should be placed. Check (Y) if the child builds a tower of at least two cubes.

NOTE: ·Building a five-cube tower is a credit for Item #13

12 Imitates crayon stroke. REPORT: Not accepted

(crayons, paper) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Draw a vertical line towards the child. Say "Now you do it". Check (Y) if the child makes a definite stroke in any direction.

NOTE: ·Distinguishing a scribble from a stroke is a credit for Item #14 ·Imitating both a vertical and horizontal line is a credit for Item #16 ·Imitating a cross is a credit for Item #10 ·Drawing a square is a credit for Item #26

25 - 30 months 13 Builds a five-cube tower. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #5 (6 cubes) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: See Fine Motor Item #11.

14 Distinguishes scribble from stroke. REPORT: Not accepted

(crayon, paper) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. After the child has made a crayon stroke (F.M. Item #12), scribble randomly on the paper. Say "Now you do it." Check (Y) if the child, when asked to do so, makes a definite change from the straight line motion of the stroke to that of a scribble.

COMMENT: For any items requiring the child to imitate drawings, start each trial on a new page so the child is not distracted by previous drawings.

NOTE: ·Imitating a vertical and horizontal line is a credit for Item #16 ·Imitating a cross is a credit for Item #20 ·Drawing a square is a credit for Item #26

15 Turns paper pages one at a time. REPORT: Not accepted

(paper-page book) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the book on the table in front of the child. Ask the child to open the book and turn the pages. Demonstrate. Check (Y) if the child can turn at least two pages, one at a time. The child may use two hands -- one to hold on to the book and the other to turn the pages. The child must use his fingers to run the pages rather than using the palm of his hand.

COMMENT: Pages do not have to be consecutive.

31 - 36 months 16 Imitates both vertical and horizontal lines. REPORT: Not accepted

(crayon, paper) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Draw a vertical line. Then say "Now you do it". Allow 3 trials. Once the child has drawn a vertical line, the examiner should draw a horizontal line and say "Now you do it". Again, allow three trials. Check (Y) if the child differentiates the two lines so they are roughly vertical and horizontal within 30 degrees.

e.g. vertical ; horizontal

COMMENT: F.M. Item #20 may be administered next. Refer to COMMENT under Item #14.

NOTE: ·Imitating a cross is a credit for Item #20 ·Drawing a square is a credit for Item #26

17 Imitates folding a piece of paper. REPORT: Not accepted

(four 8" x 8" papers) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Place a piece of paper in front of the child and use another piece for demonstration. Fold the paper in half bringing the bottom edge to meet the top or one side to meet the other. Make a definite crease in the paper by pressing along the edge with your fingers. Say "Now you fold the paper and make a crease just like I did". Check (Y) if the child folds the paper from side to side or bottom to top.

COMMENT: The child must at least pat the paper in an effort to make a crease. An actual crease is not necessary. It is not necessary to apply pressure all along the fold. Encourage the child by showing how the folded paper, placed upside down, makes a tent and how a pencil can hide in it.

37 - 42 months 18 Folds hands with fingers interlaced. REPORT: Not accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Fold your hands interlacing your fingers. Say "Now you do the same". The examiner may leave hands folded as a guide.

Check (Y) if the child can fold her hands, interlacing her fingers. There should only be one finger per space.

COMMENT: The forefinger of either the right or left hand can be positioned following the thumbs -- depending on the child's preferred hand.

NOTE: · Folding hands and rotating thumbs is a credit for Item #23

19 Strings four beads. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #8 (4 beads) CRITERION: 1/2 trials.

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Make sure there is a knot at the end of the string. Place four beads on the string showing the child how to pull the string through each bead. Allow the child to practice with four beads. Remove these beads from the string and start trial #1. Say "Now you do it as fast as you can". Record time.

Check (Y) if the child can put four beads on the string within two minutes. The child must hold bead and string by himself.

COMMENT: If edges of holes in the beads are rough, insert a pen through the holes and roll around edges of holes with pressure to smooth the edge.

43 - 48 months 20 Imitates a cross (+). REPORT: Not accepted

(crayons, paper) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. After the child has made a vertical and horizontal line for #16, draw a cross (+) and say "Now you do it".

Check (Y) if the child's drawing resembles a + rather than an x. The two lines must intersect.

Refer to COMMENT under Item #14.

NOTE: ·Drawing a square is a credit for Item #26

21 Puts ten buttons in a container. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #9 (container, 10 buttons) CRITERION: 1/2 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Place 10 buttons in the container, counting from 1-10 to enhance interest. Say "Now you do it as fast as you can". Hold container steady while the child puts the buttons in. Count as he goes, to encourage him. Record time.

Check (Y) if the child places 10 buttons in the container in 25 seconds.

COMMENT: White buttons should be used on table top with dark surface while dark buttons should be used on table top with light surface. Ensure that the child picks up one button at a time and uses only one hand.

Be sure to arrange buttons on the side of the container corresponding to the child's preferred hand.

49 - 54 months 22 Touches each finger of one hand to thumb of same hand. REPORT: Not accepted CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Touch each finger of one hand to the thumb of the same hand. Let the child imitate you as you touch each finger. Say "Do it with me".

Check (Y) if child touches each finger of her hand to her thumb.

The child can use either her left or right hand.

COMMENT: Examiner may direct the child by pointing to the finger that the child needs to touch next with her thumb.

23 Folds hand and rotates thumbs. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Ask the child to fold his hands again, fingers interlaced. Then, while demonstrating, say "Now do this. Move each of your thumbs up, over and around the other several times".

Check (Y) if the child can rotate his thumbs in the same way.

55 - 60 months 24 Manipulates pipe cleaners. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #10 (5 pipe cleaners) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. There are two different methods of showing the child how to join the pipe cleaners.

First Method: demonstrate joining two pipe cleaners end to end by overlapping and twisting the two ends.

Second Method: demonstrate placing two pipe cleaners side by side and join them by twisting.

Then take the pipe cleaners apart and straighten them. Give them to the child and say "Now you do it".

Check (Y) if the child joins two pipe cleaners together in some way so they do not come apart when picked up by the examiner.

Do not credit if the child merely squeezes 2 together into a ball.

25 Draws a person with at least four parts. REPORT: Not accepted

(crayon, paper) CRITERION: 1/2 trials - must draw at least 4 parts of person.

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "draw a person / man / mommy / daddy / me".

Check (Y) if the child draws at least 4 of the following parts/pairs of parts:

head, hands (2), eyes (2) arms (2), nose, feet (2), mouth, legs (2), ears (2) body. Ask the child to name each part as she completes her drawing. Indicate parts drawn.

Each part must be drawn in a location symbolic of a part of a whole (e.g. one arm at top of page and other arm at bottom is not acceptable).

Refer to COMMENT under Item #14

26 Draws a square. REPORT: Not accepted

(crayon, paper) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Draw two vertical, then two horizontal lines to make a square. A further demonstration should show how a square can be drawn starting at the top left hand corner, drawing across to the right, down, across to the left and up.

Check (Y) if the child draws a square with no rounded corners. The diagram is acceptable even if it more closely resembles a rectangle - providing there are no rounded corners and there are two intersecting vertical and horizontal lines. All lines must touch.

Refer to COMMENT under Item #14.

27 Cuts out circle. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #7 (scissors), circles CRITERION: 1/2 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Remove four circles from the envelope enclosed in the kit. Demonstrate. Cut along the broken line of the circle (between the two solid lines). Then give a circle to the child and say "Now you cut out your circle the same way I did. Cut along the dark broken lines".

Check (Y) if the child cuts out the circle staying within the two solid lines.

COMMENT: Circles are on 8-1/2" x 11" pages in an envelope in the kit. Cut out each circle leaving two inches (five centimetres) around the outside solid line of each circle before administering this item.

RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE SCALE

START POINTS BY MONTHS ITEM # ITEM DESCRIPTION
2 weeks - 6 months 1 Startle response. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/2 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Stand close to the child and to the side ensuring that she cannot see you. Say "Hello" in a loud voice. Check (Y) if the child shows an arousal response : eye blink, hand jerk, jump; or a cessation response : quieting.

2 Quiets to soft, reassuring voice. REPORT: Accepted if baby does not cry during session CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: When child is crying or upset, begin talking in a quiet voice to him. Check (Y) if the child quiets to sound of voice.

COMMENT: If the child does not quiet, ask the mother to try to quiet child by talking softly.

3 Looks at speaker. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Stand in front and within sight of the child (have your face approximately 12 inches or 20 centimetres away from child's face). Begin talking to the child. Check (Y) if the child attains eye contact within 10 seconds and maintains eye contact for at least five seconds.

4 Deliberately turns head toward speaker. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials; See "COMMENT" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: Stand to the side, just out of sight of the child. Begin talking to the mother. Check (Y) if the child turns her head in the direction of the voices.

COMMENT: If the child actually makes eye contact with the speaker, R.L. Item #5 may be credited.

7 - 12 months 5 Localizes and makes eye contact with speaker. REPORT: Not accepted CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Stand to one stand, just out of the sight of the child. Begin talking.

Check (Y) if the child turns his head and makes eye contact with the speaker for at least three seconds.

6 Recognizes and responds to parent's voice. REPORT: Not accepted CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the parent to stand out of sight of the child and call the child's name several times.

Check (Y) if the child responds to the parent's voice: e.g. turns head, stops what she is doing to listen, etc.

13 - 18 months 7 Responds behaviourally to single-word commands. REPORT: Not accepted CRITERION: Response to 2/3 commands

INSTRUCTIONS: Try to elicit appropriate responses by saying "Up"; "Give"; at convenient times during the session. Gestures, such as holding out your hand when saying "Give", may be used.

Check (Y) if the child responds behaviourally to 1/2 commands. (e.g. raises arms to be lifted, offers object in hand - not necessarily releasing, etc.)

8 Recognizes name of family members, pet or toy. REPORT: Not accepted CRITERION: Response to name of one of above

INSTRUCTIONS: Make sure the family member, pet or toy is within sight of the child. Then say "Where is _______________________?" , using the child's name for it.

Check (Y) if the child looks at the named person or thing.

COMMENT: If using a toy, be sure to check beforehand that the toy is familiar to the child and that you use the child's name for the toy.

9 Stops when told "No!". REPORT: Accepted if no opportunity arises for administering this item CRITERION: As outlined below

INSTRUCTIONS: Observe during screening session. If child approaches the kit of toys, say "No! No!" , OR observe if mother says "No! No!" , for another reason. Check (Y) if the child stops -- at least momentarily.

19 - 24 months 10 Responds behaviourally to questions. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 2/5 questions

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother to name five items that are familiar to the child which are in room - e.g. bottle, ball, train, teddy, blanket. Then ask the child, "Do you want the ball?" . Repeat with remaining four trials. Check (Y) if the child responds behaviourally - e.g. nods head, goes to where item usually is, etc.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS : Any behaviour expressing understanding of the question, e.g., reaching for the item, looking at it, should be credited.

11 Recognizes named objects. REPORT: Not accepted

(puzzle: cat, dog, shoe, clock, duck) CRITERION: Recognizes 2/5 objects

INSTRUCTIONS: Administer R.L. Item #11 and #12 simultaneously. Take the five pieces out of the puzzle and put them on the table in front of the child. Name each piece for the child -- "This is a doll .... this is a dog .... this is a clock, etc.". Then administer first trial: "Show me the cat". If the child hesitates, you may say "Point to/give me the cat". Proceed with "dog, shoe, clock, duck". The child may show understanding by pointing to or picking up the requested piece.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS : Take the pieces of puzzle out of the box and spread at least six inches apart. Accept as a correct response a fist or eye point.

NOTE: ·For Item #11, check (Y) if the child identifies 2/5 puzzle pieces. ·For R.L. Item #12, check (Y) if he identifies 4/5 puzzle pieces.

12 Recognizes named objects. REPORT: Not accepted

(puzzle: cat, dog, shoe, clock, duck) CRITERION: Recognizes 4/5 objects

INSTRUCTIONS: See R.L. Item #11.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS : Take the pieces of puzzle out of the box and spread them at least six inches apart. Accept as a correct response a fist or eye point.

25 - 30 months 13 Identifies any two articles of clothing . REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: Any 2 articles of clothing

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "Show me your shoes." Repeat with other articles of clothing that the child is wearing - e.g. socks, pants, shirt, dress, shorts, sweater, blouse, etc. Check (Y) if the child points to any two articles of his clothing.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS : Start with the standard method of administration. Then, if necessary, switch to "Show me the teacher's ........" with a fist or eye point accepted as a correct response.

NOTE: We assume that the child's teacher will sit in on all testing and that it may be easier for a physically handicapped child to point to items on someone else rather than on themselves or the small doll in the DISC kit.

14 Identifies three body parts of doll. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (doll) CRITERION: 3/8 body parts

INSTRUCTIONS: Hold the doll facing the child approximately eight inches (20 centimetres) in front of his face. Say "Show me the doll's eyes". Repeat with nose, ear, toe, finger, mouth, leg, arm. Check (Y) if the child identifies any 3 body parts of the doll.

COMMENT: If child has no interest in the doll, ask him to point to your (examiner's) eyes, nose, etc.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS : Start with the standard method of administration. Then, if necessary, switch to "Show me the teacher's ........", with a fist or eye point accepted as a correct response. NOTE: We assume that the child's teacher will sit in on all testing and that it may be easier for a physically handicapped child to point to items on someone else rather than on themselves or the small doll in the DISC kit. NOTE: The same doll is used for Item #15

15 Understands verbs. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (doll) CRITERION: Understands 3/5 verbs

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the doll on the table. Say "Pick up the doll and make her jump". Repeat with sit, lie down, turn over, fall down. After the child makes the doll sit, straighten the doll's legs, then give it back to the child and continue with the rest of the trials. Check (Y) if the child responds appropriately to 3/5 commands.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS : Start with the standard method of administration. If the child is unable to do, proceed to the next item. NOTE: We assume that even fairly severely handicapped children will be able to approximate the required response. We could not think of a way to administer this item (without changing its intent) for children who could not approximate the response.

31 - 36 months 16 Understands concept of "one". REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #5 (4 cubes) CRITERION: 2/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Place four cubes on the table and allow the child to play with them for a few minutes. Place a piece of paper on the table and say "Put one block/cube on the paper", or "Give one block/cube to your mommy," etc. Wait a few seconds before marking the trial to ensure the child is finished. Check (Y) if the child puts one and only one cube on the paper on 2/3 trials.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Administer in the standard way. Accept as a correct response the child's attempt to push the item towards the tester provided that the child stopped after attempting to push one cube. NOTE: ·Understanding the concept of two is a credit for Item #20

17 Understands adjectives. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #7 (cotton ball, broken pencil, ping-pong ball) CRITERION: 2/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the cotton ball (flattened - to avoid confusion with the round ball), broken pencil, and ping-pong ball on the table in front of the child. Say "Show me something that is soft". Repeat with "broken, round". Check (Y) if the child correctly points to 2/3 objects when given the adjective.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Separate the items out so that there is at least six inches between them. Accept a fist or eye point as a correct response.

37 - 42 months 18 Points to body parts. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 4/6 body parts

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "Point to your head.........Now point to your feet". Continue with "hand, eye, leg, mouth". Check (Y) if the child points to 4/6 body parts.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Start with the standard method of administration and accept a fist point as a correct response. If a child is unable to do this, try "move your ..." and accept as a correct response the child's appropriate behaviour, e.g. "move your mouth" and child opens and closes his mouth; "move your eye" and the child closes and opens his eye.

NOTE: ·Pointing correctly to other specific body parts is a credit for Item #26

19 Understand prepositions. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINERS: #5, #6, (two cups, one cube) CRITERION: 2/4 prepositions

INSTRUCTIONS: Place two cups on the table in front of the child, one upright and one upside down. Give the cube to the child and say "Put the cube/block in the cup". Repeat with "under, in front of, behind". Check (Y) if the child understands 2/4 prepositions.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Start with the standard administration. If the child is unable to do this, put a fairly large box on the table and instruct the child to: - put the cube in the box - put the cube behind the box - put the cube on the box - put your hand under the table

Accept as a correct response a clear attempt to do the above.

43 - 48 months 20 Understands concept of "two". REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #5 (4 cubes) CRITERION: 2/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Administer the same as R.L. Item #16, substituting "two cubes/blocks". Check (Y) if the child places two cubes in the container, or gives you two cubes on 2/3 trials.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Administer in the standard way; accept as a correct response the child's attempt to push two cubes towards the tester provided the child stops after two.

21 Understands "What do you do when .... " questions. REPORT: Not accepted CRITERION: 2/3 questions

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the child "What do you do when you are thirsty?". Examples of acceptable responses: ask mommy for a drink; drink juice, etc.

Then ask "What do you do when you go to bed?" Possible acceptable responses: brush my teeth; put on my pyjamas; go to sleep, etc.

Ask "What do you do when your face is dirty?" Acceptable responses: wash it; wipe it; get a towel, etc.

Record.

Check (Y) if the child responds correctly to 2/3 questions.

COMMENT: If child simply answers "I get mommy", ask "What does mommy do?" The response need not be verbal. The emphasis is not on expression but rather on understanding. For example, the child might close his eyes and lay his head down in response to "What do you do when you go to bed?"

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Administer in the standard way; accept as a correct response any appropriate body language, e.g., "What do you do when you go to bed?" - child's attempt to lay head on the table with eyes closed.

49 - 54 months 22 Identifies objects related in function. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #4 (pencil, pen, doll, car, knife, fork) CRITERION: 2/3 pairs of objects

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the above named objects in random order (dump them out of their container) on the table in front of the child. Say " Show me what you use to write/print/draw with" (pencil, pen).

Repeat with "Show me what you use to eat with" (knife, fork). "Show me what you can play with" (car, doll).

Check (Y) if the child identifies the correct objects 2/3 times.

COMMENT: If the child picks up the objects for each trial, be sure to put them back on the table in the spot where they were first placed.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Spread items out with at least six inches distance between them, accept a fist or eye point as a correct response.

23 Identifies eight common colours. REPORT: Not accepted

(crayons) CRITERION: Identifies all eight colours. 1/2 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Empty the crayons from the box in random order (dump them out of the box) on the table in front of the child. Say "Show me the green crayon". Repeat with "blue, red, orange, yellow, purple, black, brown". Check (Y) if the child points to or picks up the correct crayon each time.

COMMENT: If the child picks up a crayon, be certain to replace it before proceeding with the next trial.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Spread items out with at least six inches distance between them, accept a fist or eye point as a correct response.

55 - 60 months 24 Points to correct pictures. REPORT: Not accepted

PICTURE BOOKLET: pp. 1-4: saddle, binoculars, spiderweb, captain CRITERION: 3/5 pictures

INSTRUCTIONS: Turn to page 1 in the picture booklet. Say "Show me the saddle". Turn the page and proceed with "binoculars, spiderweb, captain". Check (Y) if the child identifies 3/4 requested pictures.

25 Points to correct pictures. REPORT: Not accepted

PICTURE BOOKLET: pp. 5-9: tweezers, trunk, fire hydrant, sailing, balancing. CRITERION: 3/5 pictures

INSTRUCTIONS: Turn to page 5 in the picture booklet. Administer the same way as R.L. Item #24. Check (Y) if the child correctly identifies 3/5 pictures.

26 Points to body parts. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 3/5 body parts

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "Show me/touch your elbow". Repeat with "shoulder, ankle, hips, jaw ", (for jaw, credit if child opens and closes mouth or points anywhere from one ear around under his chin to the other ear). Check (Y) if the child points to 3/5 body parts.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Start with the standard administration. If the child is unable to do, switch to "Show me the teacher's ..... ". Accept a fist or eye point as correct.

27 Correctly labels first and last. REPORT: Not accepted

PICTURE BOOKLET: Page 10 CRITERION: 2/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Turn to page 10. Say "Show me the first bear; last bear; middle bear". For next 2 trials, change the order (middle, last, first; last, middle, first).

Check (Y) if the child completes the 2/3 trials correctly identifying first and last. The identification of "middle" is not actually part of the criteria. Direction is also not important, i.e. the left bear can be labelled as first or last, providing the child is consistent for 2/3 trials.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard method of administration. Accept a fist or eye point if necessary.

Expressive Language

START POINTS BY MONTHS ITEM # ITEM DESCRIPTION
2 weeks - 6 months 1 Vocalizes randomly, other than crying. REPORT: Accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to child's vocalizations during the screening session. Check (Y) if the child makes a sound other than crying. "a" and "e" vowel sounds are usually predominant. Sighs, swallows or sucking sounds are NOT acceptable.

COMMENT: Vocalizations may be credited if heard at any time during screening session or if reported by the mother.

2 Vocalizes pleasure sounds. REPORT: Accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session. Check (Y) if the child makes pleasure sounds to person, object or simply for her own enjoyment , (e.g. cooing, gurgling).

COMMENT: Sounds may be credited if heard at any time during screening session or reported heard by mother.

3 Vocalizes other than pleasure sounds during session. REPORT: Accepted CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session. Begin talking to the child. Check (Y) if the child vocalizes during the session other than pleasure sounds (e.g. ee, aa) in response to your face or voice.

COMMENT: Vocalization may be credited if heard any time during the screening session or reported heard by the mother.

4 Vocalizes using two different sounds. REPORT: Accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session. Check (Y) if vocalizations include two different syllables (e.g. goo, a, la, ma, oh, ah). Record syllables heard.

COMMENT: Syllables may be recorded and credited if heard at any time during screening session or if reported heard by mother.

7 - 12 months 5 Laughs aloud. REPORT: Accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the child in his lounge chair, on the floor, or on your lap. Establish eye contact. Play with the child -- bounce him on your knee or tickle him.

Check (Y) if the child laughs aloud.

COMMENT: Laugh may be credited if heard at any time during screening session or if reported heard by mother.

6 Vocalizes directly at others to get attention. REPORT: Accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: Observe the child during the screening session. Check (Y) if the child takes the initiative and vocalizes to get attention.

COMMENT: Vocalizations may be credited if heard at any time during screening session or reported heard by mother.

13 - 18 months 7 Vocalizes combination of two or more syllables. REPORT: Accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session. Check (Y) if the child combines two syllables (e.g. dada, mama, baba). Record the combination heard.

COMMENT: Combinations may be recorded and credited if heard at any time during the screening session or if reported heard by mother.

8 Uses initial stages of jabbering. REPORT: Accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session. Jabber is defined as vocalizations with expression and inflection without using meaningful words.

Check (Y) if jabber is noted during the screening session.

9 Uses consistent sound patterns. REPORT: Accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session. (Try to elicit by saying "Who's this/that?") Check (Y) if the child using recognizable and understandable patterns in response to familiar stimuli - e.g. parent, sibling, pet or toy. Record patterns heard.

COMMENT: Patterns may be recorded and credited if heard at any time during the screening session or if reported heard by mother.

19 - 24 10 Uses noises and gestures to make wants known. REPORT: Accepted CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: During the screening session, observe the child's efforts to communicate what she wants. Check (Y) if the child uses noises and gestures (e.g. reaches out, points, pushes away or turns away) as a means of communicating her wants.

COMMENT: Item may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session or if reported heard by mother.

11 Uses repeated words to denote one concept. REPORT: Not accepted CRITERION: Uses repeated words at least once

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session. Check (Y) if the child, at any time during the screening session, uses repeated words to denote a single concept - e.g. ta ta, bye bye, night night. Mama, dada are not acceptable. Record words used.

COMMENT: Words may be recorded and credited if heard at any time during the screening session. Mother may be asked to translate (e.g. hee-hee for horse).

12 Uses three different words. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: Uses at least three different words

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session. Check (Y) if the child uses at least three different words. These words must be understood by the examiner and used in the correct context. "Mama" and "Dada" are not acceptable. Record.

COMMENT: Words may be recorded and credited if heard at any time during the screening session.

25 - 30 months 13 Uses words to make wants known. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: Uses at least one word

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to child's vocalizations during the screening session.

Check (Y) if, during the session, the child uses words to indicate what she wants - e.g. up, down, bottle, juice, open, etc. Record.

COMMENT: Words may be recorded and credited if heard at any time during the screening session.

14 Uses six different words. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: Uses at least six different words

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session.

Check (Y) if the child uses at least six different words. These words must be heard and understood by the examiner and used in the correct context.

As in Items #11 and #12, "Mama" and "Dada" are not acceptable.

Record.

COMMENT: Words may be recorded and credited if heard at any time during the screening session.

15 Uses a two-word sentence. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: Uses at least one two-word sentence

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session.

Check (Y) if child uses a two-word combination, denoting two different concepts, to form a sentence - e.g., mommy gone, shut door. Record.

COMMENT: Sentence may be recorded and credited if heard at any time during the screening session.

NOTE: · A three-word sentence is a credit for Item #17.

31 - 36 months 16 Refers to self using pronouns. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Note the child's use of pronouns in his speech during the screening session. The desired response may be elicited by asking, for example, "Who drew that picture?" .

Check (Y) if the child uses two different pronouns in the first person singular during the test session (e.g., I, me, mine).

Record pronouns heard.

COMMENT: Use of pronouns may be recorded and credited if heard at any time during the screening session. Reversals of "I" and "me" are acceptable.

17 Uses a three-word sentence. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: Uses at least one three-word sentence (subject, verb, object)

INSTRUCTIONS: Listen to the child's vocalizations during the screening session.

Check (Y) if the child uses a three-word sentence (e.g. "Daddy bring book" ) Record.

COMMENT: Sentence may be recorded and credited if heard at any time during the screening session.

37 - 42 months 18 Answers questions using related words. REPORT: Not accepted

ENVELOPE: #1 (picture booklet p.11) CRITERION: 3/6 answers

INSTRUCTIONS: Turn to page 11 in the picture booklet. Point to the first picture of the girl crying and say "What is happening here?". The child should answer "She's crying/wiping her eyes", or "The girl is crying". Repeat with: "boy swinging, girl sleeping, girl skipping, boy sitting, and boy reading".

Check (Y) if the child answers 3/6 questions correctly.

COMMENT: The suffix "ing" does not have to be used. "She cried" is acceptable. Credit should be given for reasonable approximations, e.g. "She's wiping her eyes" for the first question.

19 Uses plurals. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #2 (2 pigs, lambs, cows) CRITERION: 2/3 plurals; See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Place one pig in front of the child and say "Here is one pig". Place the other pig in front of the child beside the first and say "Now there are two ____ (pigs)". Repeat with lambs, cows.

Check (Y) if the child uses the plural 2/3 times.

COMMENT: Before administering this item, determine whether the child can pronounce the "s" sound. If you suspect she cannot, ask her to repeat after you: "star", "snake", "ball, balls", "cat, cats" . If the child is able to differentiate between the singular and plural of these words, proceed with the administration of this item.

If she cannot pronounce the "s", record "N/O" (no opportunity) in the refusal column and be sure to note this when interpreting the results.

43 - 48 months 20 Answers questions about self. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 2/2 questions

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the child "How old are you?" "Who lives at your house?" (not necessary to mention self). Accept those usually in residence, e.g. grandma, etc., to a minimum of two people (guardian and child). Verify the answers before recording.

Check (Y) if the child answers both questions about himself. Record.

21 Identifies missing parts. REPORT: Not accepted

PICTURE BOOKLET: p. 12 CRITERION: 3/5 parts

INSTRUCTIONS: Turn to page 12 in the picture booklet and say "What is missing from this sweater/what is wrong with it?". (arm). Repeat with tricycle (seat), pitcher (handle), rabbit (ear), shoe (lace). Check (Y) if the child names 3/5 missing parts. Record.

COMMENT: When pointing to each picture, be sure not to inadvertently point to the missing part. It is also helpful to cover other pictures while showing specific trial picture in order to reduce distractions.

49 - 54 months 22 Identifies missing parts. REPORT: Not accepted

PICTURE BOOKLET: p. 12 CRITERION: 3/5 parts

INSTRUCTIONS: Turn to page 12 in the picture booklet and say "What is missing from this sweater/what is wrong with it?". (arm). Repeat with tricycle (seat), pitcher (handle), rabbit (ear), shoe (lace). Check (Y) if the child names 3/5 missing parts. Record.

COMMENT: When pointing to each picture, be sure not to inadvertently point to the missing part. It is also helpful to cover other pictures while showing specific trial picture in order to reduce distractions.

23 Completes sentences using opposite analogies. REPORT: Not accepted CRITERION: 3/4 sentences

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the child, "You finish this sentence.....Brother is a boy. Sister is a ......... (girl)". Repeat with: "When asleep your eyes are closed. When awake your eyes are ........" (open); "In summer it is hot. In winter it is ......." (cold, freezing); "A man is big, a child is ......." (small, little). Check (Y) if the child completes 3/4 sentences. Record.

55 - 60 months 24 Gives names of parents or siblings. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: Gives names of brothers and sisters, (if more than three siblings, should be able to name at least three), OR gives proper names of mother and father (if has only one parent, names that parent).

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the child, "Do you have any brothers or sisters?" If he answers 'yes', say "What is your mother's name/father's name?" Check (Y) if the child gives proper names for all siblings (or at least three in a family of four or more) OR for parents. Record.

25 Defines words. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 3/5 definitions

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the child "What is an apple" (it's a fruit, it's round and red, you eat it). Repeat with garden (you grow things in it ...vegetables, flowers, etc.), desk (you work on it, write things on it, keep papers on it, etc.), curtain (you put them on a window, they keep the sun out, etc.), ceiling (it makes the top of a room, keeps the next floor from falling, etc.) Some prompting is allowed, e.g. "Are there curtains in this room?...What are they used for?...What do you know about curtains?", etc. Check (Y) if the child defines 3/5 nouns in terms of either their use, shape, material or general category. Record.

26 Gives address or telephone number. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: Provides address or telephone number

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the child "Where do you live?". Prompt for street name and house number/box number/rural route number or directions - say "What street do you live on....what number?". If the child cannot provide this information, ask "What is your telephone number?"

Check (Y) if the child can answer 1/2 questions. Verify and record responses.

27 Explains similarities and differences. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/2 explanations

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the child "How are a dog and cat the same?.....Tell me something that is the same about a dog and cat". Wait for an answer. Then ask "How are they different?.....Tell me something that is different between a dog and a cat". Repeat with crayon and pen. The child must answer both parts of the question (same, different) to pass the trial. Check (Y) if the child provides similarities and differences for 1/2 sets of questions.

Examples: pen and crayon - same: draw/write with both different: pencil is longer and has eraser dog and cat - same: both have tails, both are animals different: dog barks and cat meows

Gross Motor

START POINTS BY MONTHS ITEM # ITEM DESCRIPTION
2 weeks - 6 months 1 Lifts head when held in upright position. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Hold the child upright against your shoulder with one hand on the child's lower back and the other behind the head for support. Check (Y) if the child lifts her head intermittently and can support her head when you remove your hand momentarily.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

2 Lifts head and shoulders while on stomach. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the child on the floor in the prone position with arms forward for support. Try to attract his attention using a toy and waving it in front of him. Check (Y) if the child lifts his head and uses his arms to lift his shoulders off the floor.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

3 Holds head steady when held upright. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Hold the child upright at your shoulder. Walk around the room or gently sway back and forth. Check (Y) if the child holds her head erect and steady during this action for a minimum of 15 seconds.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

4 Sits on lap. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Sit the child on your lap facing away from you and leaning against your stomach. Release your hands as support. Check (Y) if the child can sit for at least three seconds without tipping to one side. The child is expected to sit with a curved back and not completely upright.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

7 - 12 months 5 Turns from back to side. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Place child on his back on the floor. Engage the child's interest with a toy. Then place the toy on the floor to the side of the child. Check (Y) if the child turns from his back to his side.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

6 Pulls self to sit. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the child on her back on the floor. Allow the child to grip both of your thumbs with her hands. Gently wrap your hands around hers as a safety precaution. The child must hold on to your thumbs. Give a gentle pull to encourage her and allow her to pull herself to a sitting position.

Check (Y) if the child uses the support of your thumbs to pull herself to a sitting position.

NOTE: ·Pulling to stand is a credit for Item #8.

13 - 18 months 7 Travels by rolling, crawling, etc. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENTS" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Check with the mother the position from which the child usually starts to crawl, etc. Place the child in this position. Try to induce the child to travel by putting a toy at least three feet (90 centimetres) away. Check (Y) if the child travels a distance of at least 12 inches (30 centimetres) using any of the above techniques.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

8 Pulls self to stand. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Administer similar to G.M. Item #6. Check (Y) if the child pulls himself to a standing position with the support of your thumbs.

9 Stands momentarily without support. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the child in a standing position in the middle of the floor away from any furniture or other means of support. When she is firmly balanced on her feet, remove the support of your hands.

Check (Y) if the child stands with good balance for at least five seconds.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

19 - 24 months 10 Walks alone at least three steps. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Check (Y) if the child takes at least three steps by himself without falling.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

11 Squats to play, balancing. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Try to elicit the desired response by placing some toys in the middle of the floor and asking the child to go and get them. Check (Y) if the child can squat with good balance , using only one or no hand(s) for support.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

12 Throws large ball from standing position. REPORT: Not accepted

(large ball) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Throw the ball gently towards the child. When he has it in his hands, say "Now you throw it to me". Check (N) if the ball is merely dropped. The child must push the ball outward in a throwing motion.

25 - 30 months 13 Walks up and down three steps - with help. REPORT: Not accepted

(Must use steps available at location of screening). Try to use steps approximately eight inches or 20 centimetres high) CRITERION: 1/3 trials. See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Place a toy on the fifth step and encourage the child to go and get. Hold on to her hand, being careful not to initiate the action. Check (Y) if the child walks and down at least three steps while holding on to your hand.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

NOTE: ·Walking up or down three steps by self is a credit for Item #16.

14 Stands up from lying on floor. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials. See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the child on his back on the floor. Say "Now get up". Check (Y) if the child turns to one side and pushes himself to a stand or sits straight up and pushes himself up to stand without first rolling onto his stomach.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

15 Jumps up and down. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Jump up and down with both feet together. Say "Now you do it" . Check (Y) if the child jumps up and down and has both feet off the floor at the same time.

31 - 36 months 16 Walks up or down three steps by self. REPORT: Not accepted

(Must use steps available at location of screening. Try to use steps approximately eight inches or 20 centimetres high) CRITERION: 1/3 trials. See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Administer similar to G.M. Item #13 without holding the child's hand. Check (Y) if the child walks up and down at least three steps by herself. One hand may be placed on the wall or railing for support.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

17 Walks on tiptoes. REPORT: Not accepted

(masking tape) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Make a 10 foot (three metre) line on the floor using the masking tape. Demonstrate. Walk on tiptoes down the line. Say "Now you do it". Check (Y) if the child takes at least three steps without touching her heels to the floor. Explain to the child that he is not required to stay on the line for each step. The line is simply to be used as a guide.

COMMENT: The use of masking tape to make a line on the floor is not necessary unless the child is having difficulty completing the item. The line often provides guidance regarding distance and direction.

37 - 42 months 18 Stands on one foot. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Stand on one foot and count to five. Say "Now you do it". Try on each foot. Make sure there is nothing nearby that the child can use for support. Check (Y) if the child can stand alone on right or left foot for three seconds.

19 Walks up or down stairs alternating forward foot. REPORT: Not accepted (Must use steps available at location of screening. Try to use steps approximately eight inches or 29 centimetre high.) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Administer similar to G.M. Item #13. Check (Y) if the child alternates her forward foot going up OR down at least three steps (does not put two feet on one step). Child may use hand on wall or railing for support.

43 - 48 months 20 Hops along a line. REPORT: Not accepted

(masking tape) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Use the 10 foot (three metre) line made with masking tape for G.M. Item #17 as a guide. Demonstrate. With feet together, hop six times along the line counting each hop from 1-6. Say "Now you do it". Check (Y) if the child keeps her feet together and jumps six or more times without stopping. The child does not have to stay on the line.

See COMMENT under Item #17.

21 Walks along straight line, heel to toe. REPORT: Not accepted

(masking tape) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Use the 10 foot (three metre) line made with masking tape for G.M. Item #17. Demonstrate. Walk heel to toe (with heel of front foot directly in front of toe of back foot) along the entire length of the line. Say "Now you do it". Check (Y) if the child walks heel to toe the full length of the line without stepping off more than once. Heel and toe do not have to touch to satisfy the criterion.

49 - 54 months 22 Jumps and claps. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Jump off the floor and clap your hands at face level. Emphasize that the claps should not be done over the head, and that the feet should be kept together. Say "Now you do it". Check (Y) if the child keeps his feet together, gets both feet off the floor at once, and claps at face level before landing.

23 Jumps over rope. REPORT: Not accepted

(rope) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Tie one end of the rope to the leg of a chair or table and ask the child to hold the other end. Jump over the rope with your feet together. Say "Now you do it". Hold the rope at a level halfway between his ankles and knees. Check (Y) if the child jumps over the rope with his feet together.

55 - 60 months 24 Balances on tiptoes. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Stand with hands on hips and feet together. Raise your heels from the floor and count from one to five (seconds). Say "Now you do it". Check (Y) if the child stands for at least three seconds with his feet together and his heels off the floor. The child should be told not to walk on tiptoes around the room but rather to try to stand in one spot.

25 Hops on one foot. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials on each foot

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Hop five times on your left foot, counting from 1 - 5. Say "Now you do it". Repeat on your right foot. Check (Y) if the child hops at least three times on each foot without falling.

COMMENT: Hopping may be done on the spot or around the room.

26 Catches bean bag with one hand. REPORT: Not accepted

(bean bag) CRITERION: 1/3 trials with preferred hand

INSTRUCTIONS: Stand 5 feet away from child. Allow the child to catch the bean bag with both hands to get used to catching it. Then allow the child to practice catching the bean bag with one hand several times. Instruct her to clutch or catch it with her hands and not to trap it against her body. Then say "Which hand do you want to catch with? Okay, get ready". Throw the bean bag to the child three times. Check (Y) if the child catches the bean bag one out of three trials with her preferred hand.

27 Bounces and catches ball. REPORT: Not accepted

(tennis ball) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. Bounce the ball on the floor in front of you and catch it with two hands. Say "Now you do it". Allow three practice trials and advise the child what he is doing wrong, e.g. keeping his hands too open, bouncing the ball too far away from his body, etc. Then say, "Now let's start". On the next three trials check (Y) if the child bounces and catches the ball on at least one out of three trials.

Auditory Attention and Memory

START POINTS BY MONTHS ITEM # ITEM DESCRIPTION
2 weeks - 6 months 1 Shows alertness or quiets to sound of bells. REPORT: Not accepted CONTAINER: #1 (bells) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Ensure that the child cannot see the examiner nor the bells (position yourself behind the child).

Gently shake the bells approximately 12 inches (30 centimetres) from the child's ear.

Check (Y) if the child shows increased alertness or, if crying, quiets to sound of bells.

2 Makes a definite motor response to sound of bells. REPORT: Not accepted CONTAINER: #1 (bells) CRITERION: 1/3 trials on each side

INSTRUCTIONS: Administer this item similar to A.-A.&M. Item #1. Assess on each side of the child.

Check (Y) if the child makes a definite motor response to the sound of the bells such as head movement, feet movement.

3 Searches for sound. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (bells) CRITERION: 1/3 trials on each side

INSTRUCTIONS: Stand out of sight and to the side of the child. Gently shake the bells.

Check (Y) if the child makes an effort to localize the sound with her eyes.

Assess on both sides with three trials for each side.

NOTE: ·Turning head to localize the sound is a pass for Item #5.

4 Attends to directed speech. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials, see "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Face the child and speak to her from a distance of approximately 18 inches. Check (Y) if the child attends for at least 10 seconds - e.g. smiles, waves arms, babbles.

COMMENT: This response may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

7 - 12 months 5 Localizes sound of bells. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (bells) CRITERION: 1/3 trials on each side

INSTRUCTIONS: Stand out of sight and to the side of the child. Gently shake the bells. Check (Y) if the child turns her head to the side where the bells are being shaken.

Assess with three trials on each side.

6 Shows sustained interest in music box for thirty seconds. REPORT: Not accepted (music box) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the child in his lounge chair or on your lap. Wind the music box and place it out of sight of the child. Check (Y) if the child attends for at least 30 seconds - e.g. stops what he's doing, smiles, waves arms, etc., for at least 30 seconds.

13 - 18 months 7 Imitates own sound. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials. See "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: When the child makes a sound (eg. goo, ma, ooh, ah), repeat it. Check (Y) if the child makes the sound again.

COMMENT: This response may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

8 Occupies self with bells. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (bells) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Gain the child's interest by shaking the bells. Then place the bells in his hand or allow him to grasp the bells from you.

Check (Y) if the child shakes or examines the bells for at least 15 seconds.

Do not credit if child simply puts the bells in his mouth.

9 Searches for object/person out of sight. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the child's mother for suggestions of objects or persons with which the child is familiar but which are out of sight. (e.g. sibling, pet, toy, etc.) Ask her in which direction she would expect the child to look for each of these objects.

Check (Y) if the child looks in the correct direction in an effort to locate the object or person when asked "Where is .............?".

19 - 24 months 10 Listens to tick of clock. REPORT: Not accepted

A clock is not part of the DISC kit and must be supplied by the examiner.

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Put the child in a high chair or on your lap, facing away. Bring the clock to her ear from behind so that she does not see it. Say "Listen!".

Check (Y) if a quiet, listening expression is observed on the child's face for at least five seconds.

COMMENT: Do not credit if the child does not listen and tries to grab the clock.

NOTE: Set up equipment for Item #12.

11 Imitates sounds associated with objects. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINERS: #4 (car, doll) and #7 (ping-pong ball) CRITERION: 2/3 sounds

INSTRUCTIONS: Make the sound and show the action. Drop the ball and say "whee". Repeat. Give the ball to the child and say "Now you do it". For the next trials, tip the doll over and say "oh, oh" ; run the car along the table and say "rr"". Check (Y) if the child repeats 2/3 of the sounds.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard administration procedure. If the child is not able to do the item, proceed to Item 12. Note: We were unable to think of a way to administer this item for a severely handicapped child without also changing its intent.

12 Follows related directions. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINERS: #6 (cup) and #7 (ping-pong ball) CRITERION: 1/1 trial

INSTRUCTIONS: Earlier in the session, place the ball and cup across the room on a chair or sofa. When it is time for this item, say to the child "See the ball over there? Put it in the cup". Repeat: "See the ball over there? Put it in the cup". Check (Y) if the child goes over and places the ball in the cup.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard administration procedure with a modified distance to the end of the table. Note: To get the child who is in a wheelchair to the other side of the room would take more than 2-3 seconds. If the child is unable to complete the task, proceed to Item 13.

25 - 30 months 13 Imitates animal sounds. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #2 (cow, lamb, pig, horse) CRITERION: 2/4 sounds

INSTRUCTIONS: Show the cow to the child and say "The cow says moo...The cow says moo". Then ask the child "What does the cow say?"

Repeat with lamb ("baa"), pig ("oink"), horse ("neigh").

Check (Y) if the child imitates 2/4 animal sounds.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use standard administration. Accept clear differences in the sounds the child makes as correct, even if they are not exact imitations.

14 Memory of named objects. REPORT: Not accepted

Puzzle (cat, dog, duck) CRITERION: 2/3 objects

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the cat, dog and duck puzzle pieces on the table. In order to ensure that the child knows what each puzzle piece is, point to each and say "This is a cat. This is a dog. This is a duck". Repeat. Place a piece of paper over the pieces and say to the child "Where is the cat....Where is the cat?". After 3 seconds remove the paper and allow the child to point to the cat. Repeat with "duck", "dog".

Check (Y) if the child locates 2/3 of the requested pieces.

COMMENT: Change the order of the cat, dog and duck puzzle pieces before each successive trial.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Spread the items out with at least six inches between them, accept a fist or eye point as correct.

15 Repeats single word. REPORT: Not accepted

Puzzle (doll, cat, dog) CRITERION: 2/3 words

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the doll, cat and dog puzzle pieces on the table. Point to the doll and say "This is a doll....This is a doll. Say 'doll'" . Repeat with cat, dog. Check (Y) if the child repeats 2/3 words.

COMMENT: It is helpful to explain to the child that when you point to yourself it is your turn to talk.....that when you point to the child it is her turn to talk. Each phrase/set of digits, etc., should be said once and immediately repeated by the examiner (while pointing to self). Then point to the child, indicating that it is now his turn to say it. If the child cannot remember, do not repeat the trial again. If this is the first item requiring verbal repetition, several practice trials using phrases/digits other than those used for the actual trials should be allowed to teach the child this "pointing" cue.

Credit responses as (Y) even if articulation is not perfect. The response must simply be understood by the examiner.

NOTE: ·Repeating a two-word sentence is a credit for Item #16 ·Repeating phrases is a credit for Item #18

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard administration; if the child is unable to do the items, proceed to Item 17. Note: We could not think of another way to administer these items to non-verbal preschoolers without changing the intent.

31 - 36 months 16 Repeats two-word sentences. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 2/3 sentences

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "I am going to say some words and I want you to say them after me. Ready?" .... "I sleep". Repeat the sentence and then allow the child to respond. Repeat with "I go", "I walk." Check (Y) if the child repeats 2/3 sentences.

Refer to COMMENT under Item #15. Child may repeat phrase twice imitating the examiner. Credit (Y) if he does so.

NOTE: ·Repeating phrases is a credit for Item #18

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard administration; if the child is unable to do the items, proceed to Item #17. Note: We could not think of another way to administer these items to non-verbal preschoolers without changing the intent.

17 Responds appropriately to requests. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINERS: #6 (cup) and #7 (ping-pong ball) CRITERION: 2/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "I want you to put the ball under the chair". Repeat the command and then allow the child to respond. Continue with "Bring the ball to me", "Put the ball in the cup". Check (Y) if the child responds appropriately to 2/3 requests.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Modify requests to: - put your hand under the table; put the cube in the box - accept as correct a clear attempt to lift the cube and put it into the box ; give me the ball - accept as correct the child's attempt to push the ball to the examiner

37 - 42 months 18 Repeats phrases. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 2/3 phrases

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "I am going to say some words to you and I want you to say them after me. Ready? ...... " little boy". Repeat the phrase and then allow the child to respond. Continue with "big red truck, "nice warm coat". Check (Y) if the child repeats 2/3 phrases. Articulation errors are acceptable.

Refer to COMMENT under Item #15.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use standard administration. If the child is unable to do the task, proceed to Item #19.

19 Discriminates among words starting with same letter. REPORT: Not accepted PICTURE BOOKLET: p.13-15 CRITERION: 2/3 discriminations

INSTRUCTIONS: Open the picture book to page 13. Point to each picture as you name it and say "Here is a ball, boat, book ... here is a boat, ball, book". Then say to the child "Show me the boat." Repeat with "a heel, hill, house". (heel) "a duck, dog, doll" (dog). Check (Y) if the child identifies 2/3 of the requested pictures.

43 - 48 months 20 Repeats three digits. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 2/3 sets of digits

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "I am going to say some numbers and I want you to say them after me. Let's practice. Say "4", Say "4, 5", say "4, 5, 7". Use a one-second delay between each number. Then begin first trial. Say "2,4,6". Repeat the set of digits and then allow the child to respond. Continue with "6, 3, 5" ; "4, 3, 7". Check (Y) if the child repeats 2/3 sequences. Numbers do not have to be repeated in the order given.

Refer to COMMENT under Item #15.

NOTE: · Repeating three digits from five is a credit for Item #23 · Repeating four digits is a credit for Item #26

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use standard administration; accept a fist or eye point as correct.

21 Follow body directions. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 2/3 directions

INSTRUCTIONS: Give the child the directions, repeat once and then tell the child to go ahead and do things in the order you say. Say "Touch your arm, then your hair .... Touch your arm, then your hair. Now you do it". Continue with "Touch your knee, then your toe". "Touch your head, then your nose". Check (Y) if the child completes 2/3 body directions in the correct order.

Refer to COMMENT under Item #15.

NOTE: · Following a sequence of directions in the correct order is a credit for Item #24

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use standard administration; if the child is unable to do the task, switch to "show me the teacher's ... ". Replace "head" with "tummy"; accept a fist or eye point as correct. Note: "head" and "nose" would be difficult to distinguish with an eye point.

49 - 54 months 22 Plays shopping game. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINERS: #1 (rattle, bells) and #7 (tennis ball, pencil, scissors, tape, crayon) CRITERION: 2/3 sequences

INSTRUCTIONS: Arrange the objects in the following order (from the child's left to right) on the floor, five feet away from the child's chair: ball, crayon, bells, tape, rattle, pencil, scissors. Label the objects for the child. "This is a ball" etc. Turn the child so he cannot see the objects. Say "I want you to listen carefully. Bring only the things I ask for. Bring me the ball, the pencil, and the scissors." Repeat the comment and then allow the child to respond. Replace the objects, scramble the order and continue with the rattle, the tape, and the crayon; the pencil, the ball and the bells. The child does not have to pick up the objects in the order given.

Check (Y) if the child chooses all items correctly in 2/3 of the sets of objects.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Work on top of a table, spread the items out with at least six inches between them, accept a fist or eye point as correct. Use a screen in order to provide for the time delay.

23 Repeats three of five digits. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/2 sets of digits

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "I am going to say some numbers. Wait until I finish and then you say them. Ready? ........ "7, 2, 9, 6, 4". Repeat the set of digits and then allow the child to respond. Continue with "3, 8, 7, 2, 6". Numbers may be given in any order.

Check (Y) if the child repeats at least 3/5 of the numbers for 1/2 set of numbers.

COMMENT: Use practice trial as in Item #20: Say "4; 4, 5; 4, 5, 7" with one- second delay. Also refer to COMMENT under Item #15.

NOTE: · Repeating four digits is a credit for Item #26

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use standard administration; if the child is unable to do the task, proceed to Item #24.

55 - 60 months 24 Follows sequence of directions. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (doll), tennis ball, book, crayons CRITERION: 1/2 sequences

INSTRUCTIONS: Give the directions, repeat once, and then tell the child to go ahead. For the first trial, say "I am going to ask you to do some things. Listen carefully and do them in the order I say............"Put the ball on the chair, then give the crayons to me, then close the book". Again, "Put the ball on the chair, then give the crayons to me, then close the book". Repeat with "Close the door (or reasonable substitute), then put the doll on the table, then throw the ball to me".

Check (Y) if the child carries out 1/2 sequences of directions in the correct order.

Refer to COMMENT under Item #15.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: First Sequence: put the sponge in the box, give me the block and close the book. Accept obvious tries as correct, e.g. child pushes the block towards the tester or attempts to close the book with the heel of his hand. Second sequence: close the lid on the box, put the sponge on the table, give me the ball. Again, accept obvious tries as correct.

25 Repeats sentence. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/2 sentences

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "I am going to read you a sentence. Wait until I am finished and then say it back to me. Ready? ....... "The black dog did not want to chase the bird". Again, "the black dog did not want to chase the bird". Allow the child to respond and then continue with "The teacher asked us to draw a picture".

Check (Y) if the child repeats the main part of the sentence (underlined) on 1/2 trials.

COMMENT: Prompting for missing parts is not permitted. Also refer to COMMENT under Item #15.

NOTE: · Repeating a sentence is a credit for Item #27

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use standard administration. If the child is non-verbal, stop at item #24.

26 Repeats four digits. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/2 sequences

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "I am going to say some numbers. Wait until I am finished and then you say them. Ready? ..... "2, 5, 3". Repeat the set of digits and then allow the child respond. Continue with "8, 4, 1, 6".

Check (Y) if the child repeats 1/2 sequences in the correct order.

COMMENT: Use practice trial as in Item #20: Say "4; 4, 5; 4, 5, 7" using one- second delay. Also refer to COMMENT under Item #15.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use standard administration. If the child is non-verbal, stop at item #24.

27 Repeats sentence. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/2 sentences

INSTRUCTIONS: Say "I am going to read you a sentence. Wait until I am finished and then say it to me. Ready? .... " I go outside to play with the kids and make new friends." Again, "I go outside to play with the kids and make new friends." Allow the child to respond and then continue with "Billy goes to school to read books and colour pictures."

Check (Y) if the child repeats the main parts (underlined) of 1/2 sentences.

COMMENT: Prompting for missing parts is not permitted. Refer to COMMENT under Item #15.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use standard administration. If the child is non-verbal, stop at item #24.

Visual Attention and Memory

START POINTS BY MONTHS ITEM # ITEM DESCRIPTION
2 weeks - months 1 Regards dangling object. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (pom-pom or ring) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Hold the string so that the pom-pom is in front of the child and within eight inches (20 centimetres) of the child's face.

Check (Y) if the child looks at the pom-pom for at least one second.

2 Regards dangling object for at least three seconds. REPORT: Not accepted CONTAINER: #1 (pom-pom or ring) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Administer the same as A.-A.&M. Item #1.

Check (Y) if the child gives the pom-pom more than a momentary glance and focuses his attention on it for at least three seconds.

3 Follows slowly moving object. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (pom-pom or ring) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Jiggle the pom-pom by the string in front of the child in order to attract her attention. Once the child's eyes are focused on the pom-pom, move it slowly back and forth in a horizontal line, ensuring that you keep it within the child's field of vision (approximately four inches or ten centimetres to each side of midline). Then move the pom-pom in a vertical motion in front of the child, again within her field of vision.

Check (Y) if the child's eyes follow the pom-pom through both horizontal and vertical motions.

4 Searches for disappearing object. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (pom-pom and ring) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Hold the string with the pom-pom attached in front of the child and within eight inches (20 centimetres) of the child's face. Jiggle the string to attract his attention. Once his eyes are focused on the pom-pom, move it slowly from the middle of his face to his side and out of sight.

Check (Y) if the child searches for the pom-pom, around the point where it disappeared, in a definite effort to locate it.

7 - 12 months 5 Glances from one object to another. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (pom-pom and ring) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Hold the string with the pom-pom attached in one hand and the string with the ring attached in another. Raise both strings to be in front of and within eight inches (20 centimetres) of the child's face. Gently jiggle one string and then the other so as to attract her attention from the pom-pom to the ring and then back to the pom-pom. Check (Y) if the child glances from the pom-pom to the ring and then back to the pom-pom.

6 Inspects and manipulates object. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (pomp-pom or ring) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Hold the ring by the string in front of the child and within reach. Check (Y) if the child looks at the ring and tries to grab it.

13 - 18 months 7 Retains two objects. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (rattle, bells) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Offer the child the rattle. Once he has a firm grasp of the rattle, offer him the bells. Check (Y) if he retains the rattle after he grasps the bells, so that he is holding on to both objects for a few seconds.

COMMENT: Check (N) if the child drops the first toy immediately after he grasps the second toy.

8 Finds hidden object. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINERS: #5 (1 cube) and #6 (cup) CRITERION: 2/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Show the cube to the child and say "See this?" Then place the cube under the cup. After five seconds say "Now where is it?" Check (Y) if the child lifts the cup to find the cube. The child does not have to pick up the cube. Several practice trials are allowed.

COMMENT: It is often helpful to hold the child's hands until it is time for her to respond. The mother/guardian's assistance is valuable for items such as this.

NOTE: ·Finding an object hidden under one of two cups is a credit for Item #12 ·Discriminating between two hidden objects is a credit for Item #14

9 Maintains momentary interest in pictures. REPORT: Not accepted (paper page book) CRITERION: 1/2 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Sit the child on your knee and open the book. Touch the pictures on each page of the book to gain her attention, refraining from verbal stimulation. Check (Y) if the child looks, at least momentarily, at the pictures on three different pages.

19 - 24 months 10 Obtains stringed object. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (doll, 3 coloured strings) CRITERION: 2/3 trials.

INSTRUCTIONS: Sit the child at the table. In view of the child, tie the red string to the doll. Place the toy at the far edge of the table with the string in front of the child. Demonstrate: Show the child that when you pull the red string, you get the doll. Allow the child to pull the string and get the doll. Then place the yellow and blue strings in random order with the red string and allow several practice trials. All strings should be four inches (10 centimetres) apart.

For the actual three trials, place the blue string to the left and the yellow string to the right of the red string. Say "Now pull the string to get the doll". For the second and third trials, the order of the strings should be: blue, yellow, red; red, yellow, blue.

Check (Y) if the child pulls or tries to pull the red string on 2/3 trials.

COMMENT: This item should be administered at a table rather than in a high chair, since the string may be too long for the tray of a high chair.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Spread the objects out with at least six inches between them, accept an obvious attempt, e.g., a swipe, to obtain the correct object by pulling the string.

11 Stacks three rings. REPORT: Not accepted

(ring pyramid) CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Demonstrate. In view of the child, stack the three largest rings on the peg. Remove the rings and say " Now you do it". Check (Y) if the child places the rings back on the peg. Regard to order is not necessary.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Stabilize the stick on which the child is to put the rings by holding it at the bottom. If the child is making an obvious attempt but having motor difficulties, assist, e.g., help the child to grasp the ring; help the child to put the ring over the stick.

12 Finds objects hidden under one of two cups. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINERS: #5 (1 cube) and #6 (2 cups) CRITERION: 2/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Place two cups on the table upside down. Show the child the cube and say "Look at this". Place it under the cup on the child's right. After five seconds say "Now you find it".

For the second and third trials, place the cube under the cup on the child's left.

Check (Y) if the child finds the block on 2/3 trials.

If the child succeeds, A.-A.&M. Item #14 may be administered next.

COMMENT: Hold your hands on top of the cups while counting silently to five to discourage the child from lifting the cups before the five-second delay, or see COMMENT under Item #8.

Keep holding one of child's hands to discourage him from lifting both cups at once.

NOTE: ·Discriminating between two hidden objects is a credit for Item #14

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use standard administration but accept a fist or eye point. Deal with the time delay by holding the child's hand still for the required five seconds.

25 - 30 months 13 Places ten pegs in pegboard. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #11 (pegs), (pegboard) CRITERION: 1/2 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Place 10 pegs in the pegboard, counting as you go to enhance interest. Remove the pegs and place them beside the pegboard. Say "Now you do it".

Refrain from any verbal encouragement.

Check (Y) if the child places 10 pegs in the pegboard within two minutes.

COMMENT: The examiner may hand each peg to the child.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use standard administration; if the child is unable to do the task, proceed to item #14.

14 Discriminates between two hidden objects. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINERS: #6 (2 cups), #5 (cube), #7 (ping-pong ball)

INSTRUCTIONS: Place two cups on the table upside down. Say "Look at the cube/block". Place it under the cup on the child's right. After five seconds say "Find the cube/block". For the next two trials, place the cube under the cup on the child's left. The child must pass 2/3 trials with the cube before proceeding to the next part of the item. Then, place the ball under the cup on the left. Count silently to five and say "Find the ball". For the second and third trials, place the ball under the cup on the left and the cube under the cup on the right. Check (Y) if the child finds the ball on 2/3 trials.

See COMMENT under item #12.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Same as item #12.

15 Plays with puzzle. REPORT: Not accepted.

CRITERION: plays with puzzle for at least one minute

INSTRUCTIONS: Remove the duck, dog, cat and doll puzzle pieces from the puzzle. Say "Now put them back where they belong". Check (Y) if the child spends at least one minute playing with the puzzle.

COMMENT: The child does not have to put any pieces in the puzzle to pass the item but he must show definite interest in the puzzle -- other than simply putting it in his mouth.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard procedure and standard puzzle first. If the child is unable to manipulate the standard puzzle, try with a puzzle which has large knobs on the pieces.

31 - 36 months 16 Discriminates shapes. REPORT: Not accepted

(form board) CRITERION: 2/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: While the child is watching, place the circle, square, rectangle and triangle in the form board with the board facing the child. Remove the pieces and say "Now you do it". Check (Y) if the child places all four pieces in the correct holes.

NOTE: · Identifying shapes hidden behind a screen is a credit for Item #19

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard procedure first. If the child is unable to do the task due to motor difficulties, assist by the tester holding the piece and asking the child to fist or eye point to the hole where it should be placed.

17 Matches objects. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #2 (2 pegs, 2 lambs, 2 cows) CRITERION: 2/3 matches

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the two pigs, two lambs and two cows on the table in front of the child in a random order (let them drop out of the container on to the table). Pick up one pig. Show it to the child and say "See this (do not label animal) .. Find me another one like this .... the same kind of animal as this". Keep holding on to the pig while the child is looking.

Repeat with the lamb and the cow.

Check (Y) if the child completes 2/3 matches.

COMMENT: Be sure to replace each animal with the others after each trial, and scramble the order in which they are placed on the table.

Caution: If the child starts to label the objects, say "This is a looking game, not a talking game. Let's not talk".

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Spread the items out with at least six inches between them and accept a fist or eye point as correct.

37 - 42 months 18 Matches colours. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #5 (2 red, 2 blue, 2 green cubes) CRITERION: 2/3 matches

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the six cubes on the table in random order (let them drop out of the container on to the table) in front of the child. Pick up a blue cube. Show it to the child and say "See this (do not label colour) ..... find me another one like this ..... the same colour". Keep holding on to the cube while the child is looking.

Repeat with red and green cubes.

Check (Y) if the child completes 2/3 matches.

COMMENT: Be sure to replace the cube with the others on the table after each trial, and scramble the order in which they are placed on the table.

Caution: See Item #17.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard administration procedure but accept a fist or eye point as correct.

19 Identifies shapes hidden behind screen. REPORT: Not accepted

(form board) CRITERION: 2/3 matches for each shape

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the four shapes in a horizontal row on the table in front of the child. Place the form board on its edge in front of the shapes as a screen. Pick up the square, show it to the child and say "See this". Hold the shape for five seconds and then put it back behind the screen, scramble the pieces, count silently to five, remove the screen and say "Now where is it?"

Replace the screen and repeat with the circle, triangle and rectangle.

Always scramble the order of the shapes after replacing the screen.

Check (Y) if the child matches each shape on 2/3 trials.

COMMENT: Be careful not to label the shape (e.g. "See the circle.") when showing it to the child.

Caution: See Item #17.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard administration procedure but accept a fist or eye point as correct.

43 - 48 months 20 Discriminates pictures. REPORT: Not accepted

PICTURE BOOKLET: pp. 16-17 CRITERION: 3/4 pictures

INSTRUCTIONS: Turn to p. 16 in the picture booklet. Show the child the picture of the apple and say "See this". After five seconds turn to p. 17 and say "Now where is it?".

Repeat with doll, cup, baby.

Check (Y) if the child finds 3/4 pictures.

COMMENT: Be careful not to label the picture when showing it to the child.

Caution: See Item #17.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard administration procedure. For children with gross motor handicaps, remove the pictures from the book and spread them out with at least six inches space between them. Accept a fist or eye point as correct.

21 Matches symbols. REPORT: Not accepted

ENVELOPE: #2 (symbols) CRITERION: 3/4 matches

INSTRUCTIONS: As a demonstration, show Card No. 1 to the child and say "See this". After five seconds turn Card No. 1 over, show Card No. 2 and say "Find it here". Repeat with remaining symbol cards.

Check (Y) if the child matches 3/4 symbols.

COMMENT: Be careful not to label the shape when showing it to the child. Note that card nos. 1 and 2 are for demonstration and are not part of the criterion.

Caution: See Item #17.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard administration procedure. For children with gross motor handicaps, cut the symbols from the book and spread them out on the table with at least six inches space between them. Accept a fist or eye point as correct.

49 - 54 months 22 Discriminates "same/different". REPORT: Not accepted

PICTURE BOOKLET: pp 18-21 CRITERION: 2/3 discriminations

INSTRUCTIONS: Turn to p. 18. Point to the dolls and say "See these.... ....they're all the same". Then point to the 3 triangles and square and say "See these....they're not all the same....this one is different" (point to the square). Turn to p. 19 and say "Show me the one that is different on this page....the one that is not the same".

Repeat with pp. 20 and 21.

Check (Y) if the child points to the picture that is different, 2/3 times.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard aministration procedure. For children with gross motor handicaps, cut the symbols from the book and spread them out on the table with at least six inches space betwen them. Accept a fist or eye point as correct.

23 Identifies missing object. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #2 (lamb, cube, car, goat, spoon, pig, plane, rooster, boat, horse, bead, train) CRITERION: 2/3 objects

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the lamb, cube, car, and goat on the table in front of the child in the order listed. Say "Look at these" while touching each object. "I am going to take one away and I want you to tell me which one is missing. Now close your eyes". Repeat with spoon, pig, plane and rooster (take spoon away); boat, horse, bead and train (take train away).

Check (Y) if the child identifies 2/3 missing objects.

Caution: See Item #17.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Use the standard administration procedure. If the child is unable to do the task, proceed to item #24.

55 - 60 months 24 Replaces scrambled objects. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #2 (boat, pig, cube, car, horse, spoon, train, bead, rooster) CRITERION: 2/3 sets of objects

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the boat, pig, and cube (in this order--from left to right) in front of the child. Point to each one and say "Look at these....(do not label the objects)....I am going to mix them up and I want you to put them back the way they are now. Close your eyes". Put the three objects in a pile, then after five seconds say "open your eyes and put them back where they belong".

Repeat with car, horse, spoon; train, bead, rooster.

Check (Y) if the child replaces 2/3 sets of objects.

Caution: See Item #17.

NOTE: · Replacing 4 scrambled objects is a credit for Item #26

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Try the standard procedure. If the child is unable to do the task because of motor difficulties, substitute the items with a sponge, ball, and the doll from the kit and do the item once. Note: The size of the standard objects for this item poses a potential problem, hence the substitution of larger items. However, there are not enough large items to permit more than one administration of the item. Use a screen to deal with the time delay.

25 Reconstructs cube designs. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #5 (5 cubes - all one colour) CRITERION: 2/3 designs

INSTRUCTIONS: Use the first two designs as examples. Say "I am going to build some things with these cubes/blocks and then I want you to make the same thing". Place two cubes on the bottom and one on the top of the cube on the right to make a chair design. Say "Look at this". Dismantle the cubes, and after five seconds, say "Now you make it".

Repeat with a three cube tower.

Then administer the following three test designs: three cubes in a horizontal row; two cubes on top of two cubes; three cubes on the bottom with two in the centre on top.

Check (Y) if the child reconstructs 2/3 block designs.

COMMENT: Put only the number of cubes on the table required for each trial, e.g. 3 cubes for 3 cube tower.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Try the standard administration; if the child is unable to do the task, proceed to item #26.

26 Replaces scrambled objects. REPORT: Not accepted

CONTAINER: #2 (goat, fork, plane, horse, pig, knife, spoon, crayon, cube, bead, rooster, cow) CRITERION: 2/3 sets of objects

INSTRUCTIONS: Administer the same as V.-A.&M. Item #24, using the following sets: goat, fork, plane, horse; cube, pig, crayon, knife; spoon, bead, rooster, cow.

Check (Y) if the child replaces 2/3 sets of objects.

Caution: See Item #17.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Same as item #24 - add a cube as the fourth object.

27 Matches patterns. REPORT: Not accepted

ENVELOPE: #3 (patterns) CRITERION: 2/3 matches

INSTRUCTIONS: Practice Trial No. 1: Using Cards No. 1 and 2, place Card No. 1 on the table and say "See this" (pointing to appropriate pattern). Place Card No. 2 on the table beside Card No. 1 and say, "Now where is it?".

Practice Trial No. 2: Using Cards No. 3 and 4, place Card No. 3 on the table and say "See this" (pointing to appropriate pattern). Turn over Card No. 3 (so the child can't see it), then present Card No. 4 and say "Now where is it?". These first two trials are for practice.

Administer Cards No. 5 and 6; 7 and 8; 9 and 10, as actual trials using same procedure as described for Nos. 3 and 4. Check (Y) if the child matches 2/3 patterns.

COMMENT: Remember that Cards No. 1 and 2, 3 and 4, are practice trials and are not included as part of the criterion. Allow the child to look at Cards 3, 5, 7 and 9 for five seconds before asking him to find it on the next card.

Caution: See Item #17.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Try the standard procedure; if the child is unable to do the task, proceed to the next section.

Self Help

START POINTS BY MONTHS ITEM # ITEM DESCRIPTION
2 weeks - 6 months 1 Opens mouth to touch of nipple of bottle or breast. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Check (Y) if the child opens his mouth when the nipple of a bottle or breast touches his lips.

2 Sucks smoothly and efficiently. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Observe the child nursing or taking the bottle or simply ask the mother if the child, when feeding, sucks and swallows smoothly.

Check (Y) if the child's sucking seems efficient.

3 Anticipates being fed. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Observe the child during the motions that are preparatory to feeding.

Check (Y) if the child shows signs of anticipation - e.g., roots, moves arms or legs in anticipation, quiets, reaches, puckers or opens mouth, begins to suck, etc., when placed in the feeding position.

4 Uses hand(s) in feeding. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Observe the child while she is feeding.

Check (Y) if the child places her hand on the bottle, breast, or mother's clothing.

7 - 12 months 5 Removes food from spoon. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Gently place a spoonful of food on the child's lower lip. Check (Y) if the child opens her mouth and moves her tongue to remove the food from the spoon rather than just sucking.

COMMENT: If the child is not given solids, check "N/O" for No Opportunity under the "R" column.

Caution: With many of the self help and social items, it is important to clarify with the mother or guardian any restrictions the child has regarding food (e.g. not allowed to eat crackers), household rules (not allowed to go near the steps), etc. Any item which the child cannot complete due to restrictions or lack of opportunity should be recorded "N/O" for No Opportunity.

6 Sips from cup with assistance. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Hold a cup to the baby's mouth. Allow the mother to determine the contents of the cup and the type of cup to be used.

Check (Y) if the child takes a sip and swallows.

13 - 18 months 7 Feeds self cookie/cracker. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Again, allow the mother to decide whether a cookie or a cracker should be given to the child.

Check (Y) if the child can hold the cookie or cracker and take suitably-sized bites to feed himself the cookie - e.g. bites, chews or sucks, then swallows without choking.

8 Holds bottle or cup with limited assistance. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Observe the child drinking from a bottle or cup.

Check (Y) if the child picks up and holds the bottle or cup with limited assistance from an adult.

NOTE: · Drinking from a cup unassisted and with minimal spilling is a credit for Item #12

9 Feeds self with fingers. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Allow the mother to decide what finger foods should be given - e.g. dry cereal, small pieces of meat, vegetables, fruit.

Check (Y) if the child picks up the food with her fingers and puts it into her mouth.

19 - 24 months 10 Cooperates in dressing. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother if the child puts on any clothing by himself or if he helps at all when being dressed - e.g. holds out arm, lifts leg, pushes leg through pants, stands, turns, sits still, etc. Record.

Check (Y) if the child cooperates when getting dressed as outlined above.

11 Tries to use spoon. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: If possible, observe the child eating. Check (Y) if the child, by herself, picks up the spoon by the handle, dips the spoon into the food and brings it to her mouth. If this is not possible, ask the mother what utensils the child uses when eating. Record.

NOTE: · Using a spoon is a pass for Item #14 ·Using a fork is a credit for Item #17

12 Drinks from cup unassisted with minimal spilling. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask mother to put some liquid in the cup and place it on the table in front of the child.

Check (Y) if the child picks up the cup with one or both hands, brings to his mouth and drinks with minimal spilling.

25 - 30 13 Removes unfastened clothing. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "Does ____________ remove any articles of clothing other than her hat, socks, mitts or diaper?" Record.

Check (Y) if the child can remove articles of clothing such as her coat, pants, sweater, dress if someone first unfastens them.

NOTE: · Completely undressing at bedtime is a credit for Item #20

14 Uses spoon. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Check (Y) if the child fills the spoon with food and directs it accurately to her mouth without spilling. If observation is not possible, ask the mother what utensils the child uses when eating. Record.

This information could be available from Item #11.

NOTE: · Using a fork effectively is a credit for Item #17

15 Helps to put things away. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "What does _______________do when you ask him to help you put his toys away?" .

Check (Y) if the mother states that he helps tidy up his toys or clothes.

31 - 36 months 16 Dresses with help. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "Does your child put on any articles of clothing with some assistance?" . Record.

Check (Y) if the child can put on clothing - e.g. sweater, coat, pants with help (child initiates and completes most of the task; parent/guardian can help with finishing touches, e.g. button pants, etc.)

NOTE: ·Putting on shoes is a credit for Item #18 ·Distinguishing front from back of clothes is a credit for Item #21

17 Uses fork effectively. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Check (Y) if the child stabs the food with his fork and brings it to his mouth without spilling. If observation is not possible, ask the mother what utensils the child uses when eating. Record.

This information could be available from Item #11 or Item #14.

37 - 42 months 18 Puts on shoes. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the child to put on her shoes. Check (Y) if she pulls on her shoes and has them on the right feet. Tying the shoes or doing up buckles is not necessary to pass the item.

NOTE: ·Distinguishing front from back of clothes is a credit for Item #21 ·Putting on socks is a credit for Item #22

19 Pours from pitcher into glass without assistance. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Check (Y) if the child can lift a plastic pitcher (half full) and pour the liquid into the cup with minimal spilling.

43 - 48 months 20 Completely undresses self at bedtime. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "Can _________take off any clothing by himself?". Record. Check (Y) if the child removes all clothing including shoes, socks, pants, top, underwear.

If this item is administered in the nursery school, outer items can be used...e.g. coat, hat, boots, etc.

21 Distinguishes front from back of clothing. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "Can ______ tell the difference between the front and back of her clothes? Does she put her clothes on front to back?" Check (Y) if the child can distinguish between the front and back of her clothing.

COMMENT: If this item is administered in a nursery school, a standard t-shirt with a design or pattern on the front may be used.

NOTE: This information may have already been given in response to Item #13 ·Buttoning large buttons is a credit for Item #23

49 - 54 months 22 Puts on socks. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "What articles of clothing can ______ put on by herself?". Record. Check (Y) if the child can put on her socks by herself.

23 Buttons large buttons. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother to provide a sweater, blouse, shirt, etc. with fairly large buttons. Place it flat on the floor and ask the child to do up the buttons. Check (Y) if the child can fasten at least three buttons - not necessarily in the appropriate holes.

NOTE: ·Buttoning own buttons on clothing is a credit for Item #25 The same article of clothing can be used for Item #25

55 - 60 months 24 Totally cares for toileting needs. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "Does ______ go to the washroom by himself? Can you tell me his routine when he goes to the washroom...what does he do?". Record. Check (Y) if the child goes to the washroom by himself, wipes himself, washes and dries his hands and flushes the toilet most of the time.

25 Buttons own buttons on clothing REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother/teacher to undo the buttons on the child's sweater, blouse, shirt, etc. Check (Y) if the child can fasten at least three buttons while wearing the article of clothing - not necessarily in the right holes.

COMMENT: It is helpful to keep a shirt on hand with buttons in case the child is wearing a pullover. If the screening is completed in the home, the article of clothing provided for Item #23 can be used for this Item.

26 Puts zipper in foot catch and does up. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: If possible, have the child put on a sweater or coat with a zipper. Check (Y) if the child can put the zipper in the foot catch and do it up. If this is not possible, ask the mother if the child can do up a zipper himself.

27 Uses table knife for spreading. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: If possible, give the child a piece of bread and a knife and ask her to spread some butter on the bread. Check (Y) if the child can use a knife to spread the butter.

SOCIAL

START POINTS BY MONTHS ITEM # ITEM DESCRIPTION
2 weeks - 6 months 1 Quiets when picked up. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Should the baby start to whimper or cry, ask the mother to pick her up. Check (Y) if the child quiets when picked up.

Accept mother's report if child does not start to cry during the screening session.

2 Shows need to be held. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "Does _______ sometimes cry whether here's really nothing wrong (e.g. wet or hungry) but she simply wants to be held?" Check (Y) if the mother's response is affirmative.

3 Smiles in response to attention. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Stand facing the child and lean over him. Smile and speak to him. Touch abdomen or chin lightly and start talking to the child. Check (Y) if the child responds with a smile.

4 Conveys needs through crying. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the mother "Can you often tell what's wrong with the baby (e.g. hungry, wet, tired) by his cry?" Check (Y) if the baby has different types of crying to convey different needs.

7 - 12 months 5 Holds toy firmly and resists pull. REPORT: Accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (rattle) CRITERION: 1/3 trials; see "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Place the rattle in the child's hand. Make sure that she has a firm grasp of the rattle. In a playful manner, pull at the toy. Check (Y) if the child resists by holding the toy firmly or by pulling it back.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening sessions.

6 Bangs object in play. REPORT: Accepted

CONTAINER: #1 (rattle) CRITERION: 1/3 trials; see "COMMENT" below

INSTRUCTIONS: Sit the child on your lap at the table, then place the rattle in his hand. Check (Y) if the child bangs the rattle on the table in a playful manner.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

13 - 18 months 7 Responds playfully to image in mirror. REPORT: Accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask permission to use a mirror hanging on the wall somewhere in the house. Have the mother hold the child. Ask the mother to look in the mirror and say "Where is _________(baby's name)?".

Check (Y) if the child laughs, reaches, touches or somehow responds to his image in the mirror.

8 Plays peek or pat-a-cake. REPORT: Accepted

(piece of paper) CRITERION: 1/3 trials; see "COMMENT" below.

INSTRUCTIONS: Initiate a peek game with the child by hiding your face behind a piece of paper, reappearing from different sides and saying "Hi". If the child does not participate, initiate a pat-a-cake game by clapping your hands and saying the pat-a-cake rhyme.

Check (Y) if the child participates spontaneously and enjoys either game.

COMMENT: This skill may be credited if observed at any time during the screening session.

9 Offers toy to examiner. REPORT: Not accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask permission to use one of the child's toys. A new toy makes the required response more difficult to elicit. Offer the child the toy. Let the child take the toy. After a few seconds, hold out your hand and say "Can I have it now?"

Check (Y) if the child offers the toy even if she does not release it.

19 - 24 months 10 Accepts parent's departure from room. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: While the child is busy playing, ask the mother to quietly leave the room.

Check (Y) if, after noticing that the mother has left, the child continues to play without appearing upset by parent's departure.

11 Imitates adult behaviour. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "Does your child imitate any of your house-keeping activities around the house?" Ask the mother to give examples. Record.

Check (Y) if the mother indicates that the child imitates sweeping, dusting, vacuuming, etc. . No level of competence is required.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the teacher if the child imitates adult activities in the centre, such as wiping the table after snack or gathering up toys.

12 Brings toy or book to adults to involve them in play. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "Does your child ever bring you or any other adult a book and ask you to read it? Does she ever bring a toy and ask you to play with her?"

Check (Y) if the mother answers in the affirmative.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Ask teacher if the child initiates contact with an adult to involve the adult in play activity. Note: A child with a severe motor handicap may not be physically capable of bringing a toy to someone.

25 - 30 months 13 Helps parents with simple tasks. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the mother "Does your child run simple errand for you - e.g. get your shoes, close the door? Does he do little things to help - e.g. fetch shoes, pick up articles off the floor?" Record.

Check (Y) if the mother answers in the affirmative and can provide examples.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the teacher if the child attempts to assist with tasks when asked, e.g. fetches shoes.

14 Begins to empathize. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the mother "What does your child to when he sees another child crying?" Record.

Check (Y) if the mother states that the child shows concern for the other child - e.g., hugs, pats, looks upset or worried and/or speaks comforting words such as "That's okay".

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Ask teacher if child shows concern for others who are crying, hurt, etc..

15 Shares with adult. REPORT: Accepted

CRITERION: 1/3 trials

INSTRUCTIONS: While the child is playing with the beads, blocks, etc., say "May I have some?" and hold out your hand.

Check (Y) if the child actually gives you some of the items.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Accept as a correct response the child's attempt to push an item to the examiner.

31 - 36 months 16 Asks for help. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "What does your child do when she needs help getting a drink or going to the washroom?" . Record.

Check (Y) if the mother states that the child asks for assistance either verbally or through gestures (tugs at sleeve, pulls arm, etc.)

17 Distinguishes gender. REPORT: Not accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the child "Are you a boy or girl?.....Is mommy a girl or boy?......Is daddy a girl or boy?".

Check (Y) if the child correctly distinguishes gender in response to one of the above questions or a similar question regarding gender.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: With a verbal child simply ask the questions using the standard administration. With a non-verbal child, ask the opposite sex first and accept a nod or shake of the head, when appropriate, as the correct response. For example, with a girl, start by asking "are you a boy?"; after the child responds, then ask "are you a girl? ". Similarly ask, "is mommy a boy? ", then "is mommy a girl? ".

37 - 42 months 18 Knows the rules within family/nursery school setting. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the mother "Do you have any rules for your child at home, e.g., no running in the house; no jumping on the bed, etc? Does he know when he has broken a rule? What does he do?" Record.

Check (Y) if the mother states that the child understands the rules set by the parents and knows when he has broken a rule. The teacher can also be asked if the child knows the rules within the centre.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the teacher if the child knows the rules within the centre.

19 Apologizes when responsible for hurting another person. REPORT: Accepted INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the mother "What does _______________ do if she hurts someone either physically or verbally?" Record. Check (Y) if the child apologizes (with sincerity) .... hugs child, picks up object knocked over, etc., at least 75% of the time.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: With a non-verbal child, ask the teacher what the child does when has has been responsible for hurting another child. Accept a report that the child's behaviour shows an indication that the child is sorry, e.g. child looks crestfallen and pats the other child.

43 - 48 months 20 Complies with adult's requests most of the time. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the mother "Does your child do what you ask most of the time?" Ask for examples of typical requests. Record. Then say "Would you estimate 75% of the time she does what you ask?"

Check (Y) if the child complies with parent's or adult's requests 75% of the time.

21 States how he feels when asked. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the mother "When you ask, does your child tell you how he feels? What does he say?" Record. Check (Y) if the child can verbally express how he feels - e.g. "I'm happy, sad, angry, etc.".

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: With a non-verbal child, ask the teacher if he deliverately uses body language to communicate how hefeels when asked, e.g. through intentional gestures or facial expression.

49 - 54 months 22 Participates in conversation without dominating it. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Observe the child during the screening session. Check (Y) if the child can listen as well as talk (in a back and forth discussion) and does not dominate the conversation.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: With a non-verbal child, ask the teacher if the child can wait to take his turn.

23 Interacts with other child while playing on own. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "How does your child play with other children? Can she play on her own in the same room with other children and not interfere with or antagonize others?"

Then ask "Can she interact with other children without fighting ... for example, could she play at a paint table with other child and work on her own task, talking with the other children but not bothering them?" Record.

Check (Y) if the child can play by herself and at the same time interact verbally with other children in a non-interfering manner.

55 - 60 months 24 Plays alone for twenty to thirty minutes. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Ask the mother "Can your child play by himself at any activities, other than watching television, for 20-30 minutes without your supervision?" Record examples.

Check (Y) if the mother states that the child can draw, colour, read, play with blocks, etc, without supervision for 20-30 minutes. Several different activities may be engaged in during the time span allotted.

ALTERNATE INSTRUCTIONS: THIS ITEM IS VIEWED AS INAPPROPRIATE FOR A NURSERY SCHOOL SETTING SINCE THE STAFF WOULD NOT LEAVE A CHILD TO PLAY ALONE FOR 20 MINUTES. Therefore, eliminate.

25 Takes turns with other children. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the mother, "In a non-adult run activity (dress-up play, playing farm, space centre, etc.) does your child take turns with other children?"

Check (Y) if the mother answers in the affirmative.

26 Plays cooperatively with two or three other children. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the mother, "How does your child play with a group of 2 to 3 other children? Can she play well together with other children in circle games or activities where she must share or take turns?' (Suggest the mother think of games that have rules). Record.

Check (Y) if the mother answers in the affirmative and can provide examples.

27 Explains rules of game or activity to others. REPORT: Accepted

INSTRUCTIONS: Say to the mother, "Is your child able to explain the rules of a game or activity (hide and seek, checkers, etc) in a clear and concise manner so that other children or adults can understand him?" Record examples.

Check (Y) if the mother answers in the affirmative and can provide examples. The child is not required to initiate and supervise the game, only to explain the rules of the game.



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